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May - August,  2005

The Thirteen Migrations:


The Transatlantic Slave Trade: Between the 1500s and the 1860s, at least 12 million Africans were sent to the Americas ; half a million arrived in the U.S.  

Runaway Journeys: Tens of thousands fled slavery every year, taking refuge in the North, maroon communities, Canada and Mexico .  

The Domestic Slave Trade: Slavery’s expansion westward, from the 1760s until the end of the Civil War, displaced 1.2 million people from the Atlantic states to the Deep South .  

Colonialism/Emigration – 1800s: Tens of thousands of African Americans in search of freedom and opportunities out of reach in the U.S. emigrated to Liberia , Canada , Haiti , Mexico , and Trinidad .  

Early Haitian Immigration: Following the slave uprising and the independence of the island, several thousand people arrived in the U.S. between 1791 and 1809.  

Western Migration: After reconstruction, African Americans disillusioned with Jim Crow and attracted by land and jobs migrated west.  

Northern Migration – 1800s: Most free people left the South and migrated to the northern states and helped established the foundations of the Black urban north.  

The Great Migration: Some 1.5 million people moved north between 1916 and 1930.  The Second Great Migration: The Second Great Migration, between 1940 and 1970, brought 5 million Black southerners north and west.  

From the Caribbean : People from the British West Indies have migrated to the U.S. since 1900; Afro-Caribbeans represent almost 5 percent of the African-American population.  

Rural South: Since the 1970s, the country has witnessed a reverse migration of African Americans to the desegregated South.  

Recent Haitian Immigration: Fleeing political persecution and economic disaster, at least 750,000 Haitian immigrants landed on Florida ’s shores settling there and New York African Immigration Today: More than half a million highly educated people from sub-Saharan Africa migrated to the U.S. , almost 2 percent of the Black population

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